Sunday, 4 April 2021

IJAAF & IJNAF wrecked aircraft #56 - junkyard #1 - video

The video today, from HERE, features a lot of Japanese airplanes all together in a junkyard at the end of the war.

The few clear stills don't reveal many details about the tail markings etc.

Thursday, 1 April 2021

IJAAF & IJNAF wrecked aircraft #55 - "Akatonbo", "Tabby" & more - video

The video today, from HERE, features an "Akatonbo", a "Tabby" and a bunch of other aircraft found derelict at the end of the war. 

Let's start with the Tachikawa Ki-9 "Akatonbo" (Spruce).

You notice ofcourse the two numbers on the fuselage, probably "109 - 05". This, in connection with the existence of a drum barrel inside the rear cockpit of the "Spruce" in the previous post, clearly indicates that these are aircraft that were to be used in suicide missions. Some of the well-known "Spruce" in this photo.
Released by RS Models in 1/72.

You can also see a beautiful model by Zbyszek Malicki on our blog, here.


I had a conversation with a modeler a few years back about these particular "Spruce" and I insisted that based on logic, the undersurfaces of the wings should not be painted green as the rest of the top camouflage. No reason to camouflage these areas, waste of paint etc. Apparently the video proves that I was wrong. The undersurfaces of the wings are indeed painted green as is the rest of the fuselage. I couldn't find our conversation, so if you are reading this, please leave a comment or send me an email to apologize in person too.
Note, from the previous post, that these "Spruce" have hiragana on their cowling rings. This would indicate that they originally belonged to the Tachiarai school, which had this practice based on the "I-RO-HA" system to differentiate the individual aircraft.  

The video next moves on to show a white Showa L2D "Tabby" with green crosses. Location unknown.

Finally, there is one ex-civilian type, note the black-white-black fuselage band at a quite weird place (before the fuselage hinomaru)...

...and more derelict aircraft among them a "Dinah". 

Wednesday, 31 March 2021

IJAAF & IJNAF wrecked aircraft #54 - "Hiryu", "Akatonbo", "Hayate" - video

Three types of aircraft in today's video, from HERE.


First up, it's a Mitsubishi Ki-67 "Hiryu" (Peggy). No visible tail marking.

Then we are treated to views of the cockpit interior, from behind the pilots' seats to the front of the aircraft.

Next up is a derelict Tachikawa Ki-9 "Akatonbo" (Spruce) but more about this aircraft in the next post.

And finally a few Nakajima Ki-84 "Hayate" (Frank) fighters.

Tuesday, 30 March 2021

IJAAF & IJNAF wrecked aircraft #53 - Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" pt.2 - video

Here's another video, from HERE, showing more of the "Dinah" cockpit, this time the pilot's area.

The video starts with a Kawasaki Ki-45-Kai-Koh "Toryu" (Nick) in the background. The tail marking is unfortunately not visible. Note the overall brown aircraft next to it, probably another "Nick". Of particular interest is the fuselage hinomaru with what looks like a yellow surround. Compare the hinomaru surround with the white fuselage band. Hinomaru with yellow surround are considered to be "myths" born from badly developed photos etc etc.
Just to be clear. I'm not saying that the fuselage hinomaru has a yellow surround. I'm saying that it looks like it. Could be white paint that has darkened with age or dirt. Or it is indeed yellow. Personally, I don't know. 

The rest of the stills show the cockpit interior of the "Dinah" of the previous post.

Monday, 29 March 2021

IJAAF & IJNAF wrecked aircraft #52 - Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" pt.1 - video

Last weekend I got really excited when I stumbled on a bunch of very short but extremely interesting color videos I had never seen before. We start today with one featuring Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah", from HERE.



As you can see, in the beginning of the video the aircraft in the foreground on the left is a Ki-46-II. Note the lighter color (hairyokushoku) on most of the nose and the fuselage. Note also the brown overall color of the aircraft in the background.

The second aircraft we can see is a Ki-46-III.
I toyed a bit with the color and it gives me a green top camouflage color. Could be brown though...

Then we get a few shots of the rear cockpit. Note the camera on the floor and the interesting overall interior color.
In the last shot above, we can see the exterior of the canopy which is painted in light color. So, presumably this is the cockpit of the Ki-46-II we saw above.

Saturday, 27 March 2021

Heads Up! - P-47D Thunderbolt vs Ki-43-II Oscar


Just got my copy of the Osprey publication "P-47D Thunderbolt vs Ki-43-II Oscar" by Michael John Claringbould and illustrated by Jim Laurier and Gareth Hector.

As the publisher says:
"Fully illustrated throughout with artwork and rare photographs, this fascinating book examines these two vastly different fighters in the New Guinea theatre, and assesses the unique geographic conditions that shaped their deployment and effectiveness."

I like it a lot. Particularly well researched and very readable. Plenty of photos and illustrations that help a lot to visualize the combat actions. Very recommended! 
Thank you Osprey for the rare complimentary copy.

Tuesday, 16 March 2021

Mitsubishi A6M Reisen Zeke - book review


 
Mitsubishi A6M Reisen Zeke Vol. I by Dariusz Paduch
Kagero, Monograph 3072
ISBN: 9788366673014
 
This soft bound volume is a study of the development of the Imperial Japanese Navy carrier-borne fighter. The Japanese were the first to have a purpose built carrier-based aircraft. Paduch takes us through the evolution and development of the naval fighter and how from the earliest days from examined samples from France, Great Britain, U.S.A. and Germany the Japanese were able to synthesise their own superior aircraft. It is filled with historical data and exposes the conflict between the hierarchy, competitors, and demands of experienced pilots and how Jiro Horikoshi with his team developed the most heavily armed of all contemporary single engine fighters. The 12 Shi specification was nigh impossible to entertain, but Mitsubishi persevered and the result was the A6M. It was a marriage of powerplant propellor, aerodynamic efficiency and maximum reduction of weight. This excellent in-depth work contains 104 pages, 119 black and white photos, 8 colour profiles and plan view and scale drawings in 1/72 and 1/48. It's a must for any student of Japanese aviation.
 
- Gary Wenko -

Saturday, 13 March 2021

Yokosuka J1Y3 "Ron" by Dizzyfugu

 
1:72 Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal J1Y3 “アカエイ” (Allied reporting name "Ron"); aircraft “210-20” of the 210th Kokutai, Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force (IJNAF); Kokubu airfield (Japan), April 1945 (What-if)

Some background:
The Yokosuka J1Y was a land-based interceptor for the IJNAF that was based upon a research aircraft and introduced into service during the final months of WWII. Work on the J1Y commenced at the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal (海軍航空技術廠, Kaigun Kōkū Gijutsu-shō) during 1942 and 1943, in the midst of the Second World War. The J1Y was initially intended to test the benefits of different aircraft layouts to exploit the available engines’ potential further, albeit the aircraft had been designed from the start in a fashion that was suitable for combat and easily adaptable into a light fighter aircraft. It would eventually be developed into Yokusuka’s only fighter project.
The J1Y was an unorthodox twin-boom pusher configuration fighter aircraft. It featured a mid-mounted wing, a tricycle landing gear arrangement, and was furnished with heavy forward-firing armament. The fuselage was primarily composed of plywood for the forward section and aluminum throughout the aft section, in order to save critical war material. The advantages of the pusher design were of an unobstructed forward view for the pilot, while the armament could also be concentrated in the nose, so that most of the aircraft’s heavy elements were concentrated around the mutual center of gravity. However, a major drawback was difficulty in escaping from the aircraft in an emergency, as the pilot could get drawn into the propeller blades, and the tail surfaces posed an imminent danger, too.
The J1Y1 test aircraft was powered by a 700 kW (940 hp) Nakajima Sakae 12 engine. A pair of intakes in the wings’ roots ducted cooling air to the engine, which was mounted at the egg-shaped fuselage’s tail, as well as to a pair of oil coolers that were buried in the thickened wing roots. Despite the aircraft’s tubby shape, it was a very clean design with an excellent weight distribution.
During the ensuing tests and flight trials in late 1943, the J1Y1 proved to be superior to the comparable Mitsubishi A6M2 “Zero” in many respects, so that the Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation Bureau (海軍航空本部, Kaigun Kōkū Hombu) became interested enough to eventually order a fully capable combat aircraft variant in early 1944: the J1Y2.

Development of the J1Y2 lasted until mid-1944. Outwardly, the aircraft differed only slightly from the J1Y1 test aircraft, of which four had been built. The internal structure was strengthened, especially around the engine mount, because the fighter version was to be powered by the Mitsubishi Kinsei Model 48 radial engine which delivered 1,080 hp (810 kW). Since this engine had a slightly bigger diameter, the tight cowling had to be modified and now featured small bulges for its fourteen-cylinder heads, creating a characteristic ring of small bumps around the rear fuselage. The dorsal carburetor air scoop had to be enlarged, too.
The J1Y1’s four-blade propeller was replaced by a six-blade propeller – a measure that was necessary to convert the engine’s raised power output into sufficient propulsion, while exploiting the limited possible propeller disc diameter between the tail booms and keeping sufficient ground clearance. 
Armor plates were added to the nose section and behind the pilot’s seat, but protection remained relatively light. In order to extend the J1Y1’s limited range of only 750 km (470 mi, 400 nmi), two additional 150l fuel tanks were added to the inner wings behind the landing gear wells, partly extending into the tail booms, even though they were not self-sealing like the main fuel tank behind the cockpit. Tilting air brakes were installed on the wings, enabling the J1Y1 to maneuver quickly into a stable firing position behind slower aircraft. Armament consisted of a pair of 20 mm Type 99-2 cannon, flanking the front wheel well, supplemented by a pair of 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 97 machine guns, which were rather intended as spotting rifles: they fired tracer rounds with the same trajectory as the 20 mm rounds, and gave off a flash and puff of white smoke on impact, so that 20 mm ammunition could be saved. Upon IJN introduction in August 1944, the J1Y was christened “Akaei” (アカエイ, “Stingray”). The Allied reporting name was "Ron".

However, teething development problems stemming from the Kasei engine cooling system and the main undercarriage members led to a slowdown in production. And when the Boeing B-29 Superfortress appeared, the J1Y2’s performance, esp. at height, was not sufficient anymore. Being not suited for high-altitude operations, and lacking internal space to accommodate a turbocharger, the IJN’s interest in the aircraft waned and resources were rather allocated to more promising types like the Mitsubishi J2M, despite its development problems, too. However, the J1Y2’s heavy gun armament supplied effective firepower and the use of dive and zoom tactics allowed it to score occasionally. It was also a very agile aircraft, esp. at medium altitude, so that production switched in January 1945, after 75 J1Y2s had been built, to the J1Y3.
The ultimate variant of the “Akaei” featured a new, even more powerful Mitsubishi Kinsei 62 engine with 1,163 kW (1,560 hp). Outwardly, this variant differed from its predecessor by a different exhaust arrangement: instead of the J1Y2’s two exhaust pipes, the J1Y3 featured individual exhaust, hidden under seven aerodynamic fairings, in order to exploit residual thrust and therefore further improve performance – resulting in even more bumps and fairings around the engine cowling. For the more powerful engine and also because of cooling problems, the carburetor scoop was enlarged even more, so that an auxiliary cooling intake could be integrated. 
Even though the armament nominally remained unchanged, supply shortages and field modifications in order to lighten the aircraft saw many J1Y3s with only two Type 99 cannons installed and the empty machine gun ports faired over. Some J1Y3s also carried gun 13.2 mm (.51 in) Type 3 heavy machine guns instead of the cannons, becoming designated J1Y3a. Due to ammunition shortages, some machines were converted in field workshops to this standard, too.
The J1Y3 arrived at IJN units in March 1945, but only a few were operational until the end of hostilities in the PTO, probably only around 40 aircraft were eventually delivered.

General characteristics:
    Crew: 1
    Length: 30 ft 9 in (9.37 m)
    Wingspan: 38 ft (12 m)
    Height: 8 ft 10 in (2.69 m)
    Wing area: 262 ft² (24.3 m²)
    Empty weight: 2,839 kg (6,259 lb)
    Gross weight: 3,211 kg (7,079 lb)
Powerplant:
    1× Mitsubishi Kinsei 62 14-cylinder radial engine with 1,163 kW (1,560 hp)
Performance:
    Maximum speed: 640 km/h (397 mph, 346 kn) at at 6,096 m (20,000 ft)
                 560 km/h (348 mph, 303 kn) at sea level
   Cruising speed: 495 km/h (308 mph, 267 kn)
    Range: 1,078 km (670 mi, 582 nmi) at 272 km/h (169 mph; 147 kn) at 457 m (1,500 ft)
    Ferry range: 1,190 km (740 mi, 640 nmi)
    Service ceiling: 10,200 m (33,500 ft)
    Rate of climb: 15 m/s (3,000 ft/min)
Armament:
    2× 20 mm belt-fed Type 99-2 Mark 4 cannon with 125 RPG and 
    2× 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 97 machine guns with 250 RPG in the lower fuselage
    2× hardpoints under the outer wings for 60 kg (132 lb.) bombs 
       or 200 l (53 US gal; 44 imp gal) drop tanks

The kit and its assembly:
This build was a contribution to the “In the navy” group build at whatifmodellers.com in early 2020. The Vampire kit is the vintage Heller mold from 1979, in a mid-Nineties Revell re-boxing. Like many other Heller kits it comes with raised panels, but detail is sufficient (nice dashboard, landing gear is O.K., and the kit comes with separate air brakes). 
At the conversion’s core was the implantation of a radial engine in place of the jet exhaust. I found a donor part from a Hobby Boss MC.200 Saetta – a bit vintage, but it had the right diameter and I actually liked the ring of bulges on the cowling. Internally, a styrene tube adapter was added for a freely spinning propeller.
While adding a prop to a jet seems to be an easy task, the real challenge behind such a conversion are the many other changes that have to be made to the airframe. This includes a (considerably) longer landing gear and the respective wells, but also the tail surfaces. There’s also the question how the new radial engine actually breathes, where exhausts can be located, and a cooling system is necessary, too.
Work started with the search for new landing gear struts, and I also used different wheels – for instance, the main wheels come from a Hasegawa F9F Panther, while the front wheel comes from a Frog He 162. In order to make the longer struts fit into the airframe I elongated the wells in the wings towards the fuselage, so that the track width was reduced – but with the Vampire’s original wide stance no serious problem. From the inside, they were faired with styrene profile material, and the extended covers were scratched – esp. the parts for the wings, with their bulges for the tail boom tips, were fiddly.
In order to move the overall look a bit further away from the Vampire, I completely changed the fin arrangement. The original, rounded and rather small fins with their bullet-shaped fairings that hold the stabilizer outside of the original exhaust blast were deleted. Once the wings and the tail booms were added to the fuselage, the stabilizer was mounted between the booms, in a slightly lower position. For the new fins I wanted a layout that would, beyond a more squarish shape that would better match the wings, protect the propeller. These became stabilizers from a KP Yak-23; each was cut into two pieces, tailored to match the rest of the aircraft and glued in positions above and underneath the booms. Looks quite weird, as if the aircraft had been designed upside down, but it’s a pragmatic solution.
The six-blade propeller was scratched; the spinner was carved from a thick piece of sprue, plus a metal axis, and six single blades that were taken from the rather wacky pair of one-piece propellers of Airfix’ Ki-46 kit.
Hollow steel needles were used as barrels for the Type 99 cannons in the lower fuselage.

Painting and markings:
A rather conservative approach a typical IJN dark green over light grey scheme, with minimal individual markings or tactical codes. I wanted to stay true to this concept but decided to simplify the scheme even more since this would be a late-war aircraft, pressed into service under rather dire supply circumstances. This resulted in a NMF livery (basis Tamiya XF-60, plus some Polished Aluminum Metallizer from Humbrol on top), with only the upper surfaces camouflaged with IJN Green (ModelMaster) without primer underneath, resulting in a somewhat flaky and worn look. 
The yellow ID markings on the wings’ leading edges were created with decal material (TL Modellbau), the cockpit interior as well as the landing gear wells were painted with a mix of silver and blue, mimicking “aodake iro” protective clear lacquer. The struts were painted black, according to A6M museum exhibits. The propeller blades ware painted in a red-brown primer, a mix of Humbrol 160 and 180.
Markings were taken from a PrintScale Yokosuka N1K2 decal sheet and mixed from two aircraft. Placing the fuselage hinomaru was tricky – the natural choice would have been the tail booms, but they’d be very small, so I rather put them on the fuselage under the cockpit. With the individual aircraft number added to the meatball, it looks now like a racing aircraft, though...
Finally, the kit received some soot stains and dry-brushing with aluminum, and everything was sealed with semi-gloss acrylic varnish from Italeri - even though the result is a little too glossy for my taste, but I left it that way.

- Dizzyfugu -

Sunday, 7 March 2021

Kawanishi/Yokosuka K5Y1 "Akatonbo" (Willow) in the "Secret Base Museum"

Responding to a request by the "Secret Base Museum" in Kumamoto Prefecture, Koyosha, a company  involved in the design and production of exhibition spaces for cultural facilities and with three-dimensional modeling technology, built and delivered a 1:1 scale replica of a Kawanishi/Yokosuka K5Y1 "Akatonbo" trainer.

The photos below, courtesy of Kojima-san, show the trainer in the Koyosha hangar.

The total length is about 8.05 m, the width is about 10.9 m, and the height is 3.2 m. The iron metal frame was lined with polyester fabric for lightweight airplanes. The orange color of the iconic aircraft was reproduced using surviving fabric relics of the time. The seats, engine replica and propeller are all made of iron. The "rubber" wheels too are made of donut shaped iron. Total weight is 1 tonne.
There were many problems due to the corona virus, with the supply of the fabric from the US and the visit to Indonesia to study the sole surviving "Akatonbo". On top of that a flood greatly hampered the efforts, but in the end the finished aircraft looks really beautiful.
Below is an interview, from here, with Koyosha managing director Saito Hiroyuki. 


The "Secret Base Museum" (ひみつ基地ミュージアム) located in the remains of the IJNAF Hitoyoshi base and airfield underwent a major renovation and opened its gates on March 1, 2021, with the "Akatonbo" prominent among its exhibits. The page with the details of the museum is HERE and their facebook page, here.

Monday, 1 March 2021

FAOW Translations


Starting from today and until the end of this month, we will be doing translations for you, on demand. 

Send an email or leave a comment on this post and tell us which photo caption or artwork caption from any FAOW featuring Japanese WWII aircraft you'd like to see translated, and we'll do it for you.

Repeat - photo or artwork caption (not whole text) from any FAOW (not Model Art or other publication) with Japanese aircraft (not German or US) of WWII (not JIETAI).

Please be kind and don't overdo it.

FAOW #5
p.64
On May 26, 1941 Zeros Model 21 belonging to the 12th Kokutai are on their way to attack Tianshui and Nanzheng. The aircraft in the foreground, "3-136", is flown by PO3c Nakakariya Kunimori and the other, "3-141", is flown by the new buntai-cho Lt Suzuki Minoru. The aircraft of Lt Suzuki has two blue bands on the fuselage and two yellow bands on the tail. The aircraft of Nakakariya has one blue band on the fuselage and one yellow on the tail. Although difficult to see, both aircraft have two kill markings in the shape of a swallow. On that day, Nakakariya engaged in battle for the first time and is reccorded as having shot down two enemy aircraft. [a rather bizzare comment as this aircraft is heading to battle already having 2 kill markings]. 

p.69
After taking control of Jawa Island, the 3rd Kokutai relocated to Buton airfield, near Kupang on Timor Island, from the end of February until March 1942, and attacked North Australia. This photo shows Model 21s belonging to the "yellow chutai" of the 3rd Kokutai on Buton airfield. The aircraft in the foreground has two yellow bands on the fuselage and on the tail. It's the plane of the chutai commander. This is an officially released photo and the tail number has been censored. In the background a Zero and a "Betty" are about to land.
[Buton Island is in Sulawesi. Kupang had one ex-Dutch airfield, named Oeboefoe. Perhaps "Buton" was the Japanese name of the airfield] 

FAOW #19

p.19
The very 1st pre-production Ki-84 was tested with skis instead of wheels. The cowling entrance has been covered to prevent the engine to freeze. The Ho-103 cannon ports have been covered and the single exhausts can clearly be seen. There was no chance to put to use the ski landing system and therefore it was only tested.

p.75
top
May 1945, Ki-84-Koh "Hayate" of the 58 Shimbutai are taking off from Shimodate airfield, Ibaraki Prefecture, to attack US ships around Okinawa. The scull on the tail is based on the nickname of the 58 Shimbutai which was "dokuro shimbutai". The marking is in white on all aircraft. Under the rudder numbers from 1-12 are written in white, to signify the different aircraft. This number is not the serial number. The 2nd and 3rd aircraft from the one on the foreground [number 7 and the one next to it, tail number not visible] are painted in dark green. All the rest are in dark brown.

bottom
Spring 1945, Ki-84-Koh are lining up on Tatebayashi airfield, Gunma Prefecture. These are aircraft to be used in suicide missions by tokko units. All the aircraft have their Ho-5 wing cannons removed. This is an indication that these are tokko aircraft. They are probably aircraft brought directly from the Ohta factory of Nakajima. But the dark brown paint of all the aircraft has peeled off a lot. These aircraft were delivered to the 181~184 Shimbutai and others.   

p.81
May 17, 1945, at 13:00, "Hayate" of the 57 Shimbutai take off from Shimodate airfield, Ibaraki Prefecture, to relocate to Hofu airfield, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The ground crews at Shimodate wave them goodbye. The aircraft in the foreground on the right, with the number "10" on the tail, was flown by Cpl Nishida. The aircraft next to it, "925", was an escort fighter belonging to the 51 Sentai, 1st Chutai commander, 1Lt Kurihara Rokuro. The "Hayate" with the number "21" on the tail was flown by Cpl Takamoku ?, "03" by 2Lt Yoshikawa ?, "01" by Cpl Yamashita Takayuki, "02" by 2Lt Tozawa Goro and "20" by 2Lt Karasawa Tetsujiro.
The aircraft of Takamoku "21", has a red arrow with a white surround that is running from the nose to the tail. Between the fuselage hinomaru and the tail has the kanji "必沈" (HiChin - "sink without fail"), although not 100% sure, the spinner is red. An illustration of this a/c is on the foldout.
These 12 "Hayate" May 25 attacked the US fleet around Okinawa.

p. 80
Members of the 57 Shibutai check the route from Shimodate to Hofu. In the middle is the unit commander 2Lt Ito ?, on the left is 2Lt Yoshikawa ? and on the right is 2Lt Tozawa Goro. They all have a band with the 57 Shimbutai marking on their left arm and under it, they have a hinomaru sewn to avoid getting confused to a US pilot if they made an emergency landing. This practice started from February 1945. 

*The question marks are there because we are not sure how the kanji of the first names of the pilots are read.

FAOW #136
p. 57(top)
The "Pete" in the photo, flying over Borneo, belong to an air unit attached to the 22 Special Base Unit. Probably a 1945 New Year's Day flight. There are no bombs under the wings. These floatplanes have no tail markings but there were aircraft with "22" or "022" on the tail. During the October B-24 raids of the previous year, the commander of the unit Lt Nishiwaki Masaharu commented that the 7.7mm bullets of the "Pete" were like "piss on a frog's face" (a Japanese proverb meaning that something is pointless, just like throwing water on a grog's face, where the frog doesn't feel a thing). Therefore the unit started using 3Go bombs and there are reports of causing serious damage to the US bombers.     

Sunday, 28 February 2021

IJAAF Paratroopers - Exhibition - video

Another NHK video today featuring IJAAF paratroopers and more.



Emperor Showa (a.k.a Hirohito) could not, ofcourse, see first hand the paratrooper op against Palembang so the Army had to put up a show for him. And so, on July 21, 1942, H.I.M. visited the Utsunomiya Aviation School in Tochigi Prefecture for a special exhibition. 
The bugler call at the beginning of the video is the Japanese equivalent to "to the colors" of sorts. It sounded when the IJNAF flag was raised.
The cleanest version I could find is here. A vintage version with mediocre sound is here. The Kaijo JIETAI still uses it. A rather poor execution can be heard here.

H.I.M. arrives at the airfield, greeted by cadets of the Shonen Hikohei (Youth Aviation Cadet) programme.

A paratrooper is standing in front of a "Sally" or a Ki-57.

The Emperor was introduced to a number of captured Allied aircraft like, Lockheed Hudson (not seen in the video), Hawker Hurricane, Martin B10 bomber and more.

A flight of Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia"is doing a low pass.

The Emperor's area. The Ki-21 can be seen in the background on the right.

The then-Prime Minister Tojo Hideki was naturally also there.

The still below illustrates what we described in the previous post regarding the chest parachute. In this case the paratrooper has untied it from his chest and has left it hanging underneath him as he descents.